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Factors leading to the formation of carcinoid are unfavorable living conditions, poor environmental conditions, contact with carcinogens (substances that can cause tumor disease or cancer). Causes of carcinoid syndrome and its clinical symptoms.

The direct cause of carcinoid syndrome is the release of biologically active substances into the blood by tumor cells, namely. serotonin, histamine, bradykinin. The release of these substances occurs cyclically, which is accompanied by so-called tides. A flush with carcinoid is manifested by a sensation of vardenafil flow to the face and limbs, a feeling of heat. At this moment, pronounced redness of the skin is noted. The duration of this condition usually ranges from several minutes to several hours. A hot flash can be triggered by emotional or physical stress. The release of serotonin is accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure, palpitations, and occasionally loss of consciousness.

Another symptom of carcinoid syndrome is diarrhea. In 70% of patients, diarrhea can occur against the background of a hot flash, and in 30% - without hot flash symptoms. Diarrhea may be accompanied by severe paindroma in the abdomen due to increased intestinal activity. Some substances can provoke a narrowing of the bronchi, so approximately 10% of patients experience distinct wheezing in the lungs. In advanced cases of carcinoid syndrome, pathology of the cardiovascular system develops. myocardial ischemia, fibrosis of the heart valves, which leads to heart failure.

Is this disease difficult to detect? Diagnosis of carcinoid syndrome is difficult. If this disease is suspected, a urine test is first prescribed to determine the level of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (an indicator of vardenafil pills). If the level is elevated, a search begins for a tumor that produces histamine and serotonin. For this purpose, ultrasound of the abdominal organs, FGDS, and colonoscopy are prescribed. Mandatory studies are fiberoptic bronchoscopy and chest X-ray. Diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid and carcinoid syndrome is carried out by an oncologist.

Treatment methods for carcinoid syndrome. Treatment for carcinoid syndrome involves removal of the hormone-producing tumor. There are several surgical options. If the tumor is localized in the lumen of levitra, it can be removed through an endoscope. This is the easiest and safest method. When the carcinoid is localized in the appendix or in the small intestine, laparoscopic or laparotomic access to the tumor and its removal is performed. In some cases, the size of the tumor is so small that it is impossible to accurately determine its location, then conservative treatment is prescribed with drugs that reduce the tumor's production of the hormones serotonin and histamine.

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There are no specific measures to prevent carcinoid syndrome. In case of an inoperable tumor with an unspecified localization, patients are strongly recommended to regularly undergo diagnostic procedures - colonoscopy, FGDS and others. This will help to detect tumor growth in time and operate on it. When a hot flash occurs, it is recommended to take levitra pills a horizontal position, since a decrease in pressure in this case can provoke a fall and injury. The information is posted on the site for informational purposes only. Consultation with a specialist is required. If you find an error in the text, an incorrect review or incorrect information in the description, we ask you to report this to the site administrator.

Reviews posted on this site are the personal opinions of the people who wrote them. Kwashiorkor is most common in Africa, Central and South America, India, and Indochina. 1 Etiology 2 Pathogenesis 3 Pathological anatomy 4 Clinical picture 5 Diagnosis 6 Treatment 7 Prognosis 8 Prevention.

The cause of the disease is a constant lack of foods containing animal protein (meat, milk, etc.) in children's diets. In the areas where Kwashiorkor is distributed, the main food is cereals (mil, sorghum, maize, fonio) and tubers (cassava, inyam, taro). The disease usually develops after the child is weaned, especially with a sharp transition (without prior complementary feeding) to feeding with adult food. Lack of protein in food and disruption of the secretory activity of levitra pills of the intestine lead to a decrease in the albumin content in the blood plasma, which causes a negative nitrogen balance and a decrease in oncotic pressure in the plasma. This causes cellular hyperhydration - swelling appears (see Edema).